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Whakaari/White Island

Whakaari/White Island ([fa?ka??i]; also known as just White Island) is an active andesite stratovolcano situated 48?km (30?mi) from the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand, in the Bay of Plenty. The island covers an area of approximately 325?ha (800 acres),[1] which is only the peak of a much larger submarine volcano.

Whakaari/White Island
Whakaari (Māori)
White Island 2013.jpg
Whakaari/White Island seen from the south
Highest point
Elevation321?m (1,053?ft)
Prominence321?m (1,053?ft)
Coordinates37°31′12″S 177°10′57″E? / ?37.52000°S 177.18250°E? / -37.52000; 177.18250Coordinates: 37°31′12″S 177°10′57″E? / ?37.52000°S 177.18250°E? / -37.52000; 177.18250?
Geography
Location of Whakaari/White Island
LocationBay of Plenty, (off) North Island, New Zealand
Geology
Mountain typeStratovolcano
Volcanic arc/beltTaupo Volcanic Zone
Last eruption9 December 2019

The island is New Zealand's most active cone volcano, and has been built up by continuous volcanic activity over the past 150,000 years.[2] The nearest mainland towns are Whakatane and Tauranga. The island has been in a nearly continuous stage of releasing volcanic gas at least since it was sighted by James Cook in 1769. Whakaari erupted continually from December 1975 until September 2000, marking the world's longest historic eruption episode, according to GeoNet, and also in 2012, 2016, and 2019.

Sulphur was mined on the island until the 1930s. Ten miners were killed in 1914 when part of the crater wall collapsed.The main activities on the island now include guided tours and scientific research. Access to the island is allowed only as a member of a tour run by a registered tour operator.

A large eruption occurred at 14:11 on 9 December 2019, which resulted in sixteen fatalities. Twenty six survivors were seriously injured, many critically, most suffering severe burns. Three survivors suffered minor injuries. Forty-seven people were reportedly on the island when it erupted. A second eruption closely followed the first. [3]

GeographyEdit

Whakaari/White Island is an irregular oval in shape, with a length (northwest–southeast) of 3 kilometres (1.9?mi) and a width of 2 kilometres (1.2?mi), and covers an area of approximately 325 hectares (800 acres).[1]. It lies in the Bay of Plenty 48 kilometres (30?mi) from the North Island mainland, due north of the town of Opotiki and north-northeast of Whakatāne. The island's active crater lies slightly southeast of the island's centre, and contains an acidic lake. The crater has a sharp rim to the northwest, with its highest point (also the island's highest point) being the 321-metre (1,053?ft) Mount Gisborne in the west. The 283-metre (928?ft) Mount Percival forms the northern part of the rim. An older vent, the 310-metre (1,020?ft) Mount Ngatoro, lies to the northwest.[4] The exposed island is only the peak of a much larger submarine volcano, which rises up to 1,600?m (5,249?ft) above the nearby seafloor.

The island is generally rugged, with cliffs surrounding most of the coast. The only exceptions are to the southeast of the crater, where ash and boulder slopes descend to Te Awapuia Bay (also known as Crater Bay), the site of derelict buildings and the island's wharf. This bay lies between a prominent headland, Troup Head, at the island's southeastern extreme, and the island's southernmost point, Otaketake, which is the site of one of the island's gannet colonies. Another colony exists at Te Hokowhitu, the cliff which forms much of the western coast of the island.[4]

Several reefs and islets are located along the island's northeast coast, and there is also a reef at Troup Head. A small islet, Club Rock, is situated some 600 metres south of Otaketake.[4]

VolcanologyEdit

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Main vent of Whakaari/White Island in 2000

Whakaari/White Island is part of the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Its eruptions have produced andesite and dacite as lava flows, explosive eruptions of ash, and pyroclastic flows[5]. Its frequent activity and easy access attract scientists and volcanologists as well as many tourists.[citation needed]

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Eruption plume stretching northeastwards from Whakaari/White Island as seen from space, June 2000

Volcanologists from the GeoNet Project continually monitor the volcano's activity via surveillance cameras. Survey pegs, magnetometers and seismography equipment for early earthquake warnings via radio have also been installed on the crater walls. Since the modern "alert" system was made operational,[when?] the island is typically on an alert level rating of 1 or 2 on a scale of 0 to 5; as "Level 2 is the highest alert level before an eruption takes place and indicates 'moderate to heightened volcanic unrest' with the 'potential for eruption hazards.'"[6] The alert level was moved from level 1 to level 2 on 18 November 2019.[6] This volcano is monitored by the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project. At most times the volcanic activity is limited to steaming fumaroles and boiling mud.[citation needed]

In March 2000, three small vents appeared in the main crater and began belching ash which covered the island in fine grey powder. An eruption on 27 July 2000 blanketed the island with mud and scoria and a new crater appeared. Major eruptions in 1981–83 altered much of the island's landscape and destroyed the extensive pōhutukawa forest.[7] The large crater created at that time now contains a lake, whose level varies substantially.

Between July and August 2012 the island showed signs of increased activity with lake and gas levels rising from inside the crater. On 5 August 2012 a minor eruption occurred,[8] sending ash into the air. More eruptions have followed since.[9]

Ongoing volcanic activity and tremors on 25 January 2013 suggested another eruption was imminent.[10] A small eruption occurred on 20 August 2013 at 10.23 am, lasting for ten minutes and producing mostly steam.[11]

2019 eruptionEdit

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View of the 2019 Whakaari/White Island eruption from Whakatane at 14:20, 9 minutes after the start of the eruption

At 14:11 NZDT[12] on 9 December 2019, Whakaari/White Island erupted. It was reported that there were 47 people on the island when the eruption happened.[13] Sixteen people were killed and a further 26 were seriously injured, many critically. The bodies of two victims have not been recovered and may have been lost to the sea.[14] The ongoing seismic and volcanic activity in the area and subsequently heavy rainfall as well as low visibility and toxic gases all hampered recovery efforts.[15][16]

Experts identified the event as a phreatic eruption: a release of steam and volcanic gases which caused an explosion, launching rock and ash into the air.[17]

HistoryEdit

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Whakaari/White Island, 22 October, 1844, from album of drawings compiled by T.E. Donne

NameEdit

The Māori name Whakaari is recorded in multiple 19th century texts by Europeans, with one mention dating back to 1849, though spelling varied including Wakaari, Whakari, and Whaka ari.[18] The name Whakaari means "to make visible" or "exposed to view".[19] The full Māori name for the island is te puia whakaari, meaning "The Dramatic Volcano".[20]

Whakaari was named "White Island" by Captain Cook on 1 October 1769. According to LINZ this name came from the dense clouds of white steam emanating from it.[19] Alternatively, he may have been alluding to the guano deposits that once covered the island.[1] Although Cook sailed close to the island, he did not record that it was a volcano.[18]

The island's official name was changed from "White Island (Whakaari)" to "Whakaari/White Island" in 1997.[21] This makes it one of many places in New Zealand with dual Māori and English names.

MythologyEdit

Some Māori myths describe Whakaari as part of Ngātoro-i-rangi's ascent of Tongariro. In one account, he called on his ancestors for warmth; the fire was kindled on Whakaari and brought to him. Other versions of this story are similar but it is his sisters, or the gods, who send him warmth from Whakaari.[18]

Other stories give origin stories for the island. One states that it rose from the deep after the god Maui, having first touched fire was so greatly tortured by the pain that he instantly dived under water to calm his pain; and in the place where he shook the fire from him arose Whakaari. Another tells that Moutohora Island and Whakaari/White Island were peaks in the Huiarau Range near Waikaremoana but were jealous of each other, and rushed towards the ocean, leaving behind them the tracks that now form the Whakatane valley and either the Tauranga or Te Waimana valley. Whakaari was faster, so got to the better position where it stands today.[18]

IndustryEdit

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Corroding machinery at old sulphur mine

Attempts were made in the mid-1880s, again from 1898 to 1901, and then from 1913 to 1914, to mine sulphur from Whakaari/White Island, with the island at first being owned by John Wilson.[22] Mining came to a halt in September 1914, when part of the western crater rim collapsed, creating a lahar that killed all 10 workers,[23] who disappeared without trace. Only a camp cat survived, found some days afterwards by the resupply ship and dubbed "Peter the Great".[24][25]

In 1923, mining was again attempted but, learning from the 1914 disaster, the miners built their huts on a flat part of the island near a gannet colony. Each day they would lower their boat into the sea from a gantry, and row around to the mining factory wharf in Crater Bay. If the sea was rough they had to clamber around the rocks on a very narrow track on the crater's edge.[citation needed]

Before the days of antibiotics, sulphur was used as an antibacterial agent in medicines, in the making of match-heads, and for sterilising wine corks. The sulphur was hauled to the crushing plant in small rail trucks, and a bagging facility was also constructed. However, there was not enough sulphur in the material mined at the island, so the ground-up rock was used as a component of agricultural fertiliser. Mining ended in the 1930s, because of the inadequate mineral content in the fertiliser. The remains of the buildings involved can still be seen, heavily corroded by the sulphuric gases.[citation needed]

OwnershipEdit

The ownership of Whakaari/White Island was one of the first two cases heard by the Native Land Court of New Zealand (now called the Māori Land Court), the other being ownership of nearby Motuhora. Retireti Tapihana (Tapsell) brought the case in 1867, claiming ownership. Retireti was the son of a Danish sailor and a high-ranking Maori woman. Ownership was awarded jointly to Retireti Tapihana and his sister, Katherine Simpkins.[18]

In 1874, the island was sold to the partnership John Wilson and William Kelly by the estate of Retireti Tapihana (Tapsell). Wilson and Kelly subsequently leased it to the Auckland-based partnership of Stewart and Appleby, however after the conditions of the lease were unfulfilled; it was put up for lease again.[26]

The island is privately owned by the Buttle Family Trust. It was bought by George Raymond Buttle, a stockbroker, in 1936. Buttle later refused to sell it to the government, but agreed in 1952 that it be declared a private scenic reserve.[27]

Local governmentEdit

The island is not included in the boundaries of a territorial authority council (district council) and the Minister of Local Government is its territorial authority, with support from the Department of Internal Affairs.[28] The functions of the territorial authority are limited, as the island is uninhabited, the land is undeveloped and it is privately owned.[29] The island is within the boundaries of the Bay of Plenty Regional Council for regional council functions.[29]

Natural lifeEdit

Whakaari/White Island is one of New Zealand's main breeding colonies for Australasian gannets.[30] Thousands of gannets come to the island each year to mate, raise chicks, and feed on the fish in the water around it. There is little vegetation on the island itself, but seaweed grows in the waters around it and gannet parents harvest it to cool off chicks.[31][32] An ornithologist who visited in 1912 found five species and identified four; in addition to gannets they found red-billed gulls, great-winged petrels, and white-fronted terns.[33]

BirdLife International has declared the island to be an Important Bird Area because of the gannets.[34][better?source?needed]

AccessEdit

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Tourists on the island in April 2019
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Visitors approaching the wharf

Whakaari/White Island is privately owned. It was declared a private scenic reserve[35] in 1953,[36][37] and is subject to the provisions of the Reserves Act 1977.[38] Visitors cannot land without permission. However, it is easily accessible by authorised tourist operators.[35]

The waters surrounding the island are well known for their fish stocks. Yellowtail kingfish abound all year, while there is deep-water fishing for hapuka and bluenose (a type of warehou) in the winter. In the summer, blue, black and striped marlin, as well as yellowfin tuna can be caught. A small charter fleet, offering day trips and overnight or longer trips, operates from the nearby port at Whakatane.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States of America: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. p.?412. ISBN?978-0-89577-087-5.
  2. ^ . GeoNet. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
  3. ^ . 15 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  4. ^ a b c "Whakaari/White Island," topomap.co.nz. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  5. ^ Houghton, B. F.; Nairn, I. A. (1 December 1991). "The 1976–1982 Strombolian and phreatomagmatic eruptions of White Island, New Zealand: eruptive and depositional mechanisms at a 'wet' volcano". Bulletin of Volcanology. 54 (1): 25–49. Bibcode:1991BVol...54...25H. doi:10.1007/BF00278204.
  6. ^ a b . ABC News. 11 December 2019. Retrieved 13 December 2019. GeoNet upgraded White Island’s alert level from a level 1 to a level 2 on November 18, advising of increased volcanic unrest on the island. Level 2 is the highest alert level before an eruption takes place and indicates “moderate to heightened volcanic unrest” with the “potential for eruption hazards”.
  7. ^ . Spinoff. 9 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  8. ^ . stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  9. ^ . nzherald.co.nz. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  10. ^ . 3 News NZ. 25 January 2013. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  11. ^ . The New Zealand Herald. 20 August 2013.
  12. ^ . www.geonet.org.nz. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  13. ^ . 9 December 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  14. ^ . 13 December 2019. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  15. ^ . BBC News. 11 December 2019.
  16. ^ https://www.tvnz.co.nz/one-news/new-zealand/helicopter-pilot-says-rain-and-ash-hampering-search-bodies-white-island-victims
  17. ^ . Stuff. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  18. ^ a b c d e Boast, R. P. (November 1993). (PDF). justice.govt.nz. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  19. ^ a b . gazetteer.linz.govt.nz. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  20. ^ . Tourism.net.nz. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  21. ^ . New Zealand Gazette. 12 June 1997. Archived from the original on 16 February 2018.
  22. ^ Rorke, Jinty. . Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  23. ^ Boon, Kevin. . URL accessed 4 December 2007. (Archived by WebCite at https://www.webcitation.org/5TqkjKdYS)
  24. ^ Sarah Lowe and Kim Westerskov (1993). "Steam and brimstone", New Zealand Geographic 17, 82-106.
  25. ^ Norton, Amelia. . Four Corners. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  26. ^ . Thames Advertiser. 2 December 1874. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  27. ^ . 9 December 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  28. ^ . Department of Internal Affairs. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  29. ^ a b . Radio New Zealand. 11 December 2019. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  30. ^ Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. . teara.govt.nz. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  31. ^ . Our Big Blue Backyard. Season 2. Episode 2. 44 minutes in. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  32. ^ . Newsroom. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  33. ^ Oliver, W. R. B. (October 1913). . Emu - Austral Ornithology. 2: 86–90 – via archive.org.
  34. ^ BirdLife International. (2012). Important Bird Areas factsheet: White Island (Whakaari). Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 2 February 2012.
  35. ^ a b . New Zealand Tourism Guide. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016.
  36. ^ . Australian Geographic. 7 February 2013.
  37. ^ (PDF). The Royal Society of New Zealand. 15 May 1954.
  38. ^ Bruce D. Clarkson & Beverley R. Clarkson (1994). "Vegetation decline following recent eruptions on White Island (Whakaari), Bay of Plenty, New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Botany. 32: 21. doi:10.1080/0028825x.1994.10410404.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

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